<![CDATA[bobbysternjazz.com - Blog: B Natural]]>Sun, 29 Mar 2015 10:15:50 -0500Weebly<![CDATA[Roller Coaster Ride! - A Snakey, Chromatic ii-V7 Line]]>Sun, 08 Mar 2015 12:53:23 GMThttp://bobbysternjazz.com/1/post/2015/03/roller-coaster-ride-a-snakey-chromatic-ii-v7-line.htmlRoller Coaster Ride!
A Snakey, Chromatic ii-V7 Line

Picture"Roller Coaster" - Karen Elzinger
This exercise, which features the smaller intervals of Maj. & min 2nds,  was developed from one that I made up for myself a while back; when I first heard guys like Michael Brecker, Dave Liebman, Steve Grossman and, of course, John Coltrane, Wayne Shorter, and Miles Davis from the mid '60s before them; who made frequent use of these snakey, swirling, chromatic types of lines.

The original exercise was made up of a pattern which, connecting each measure by a half step, repeated itself down a perfect 4th, and which can be found on pp. 71-76 of my eBook, "Slick Licks That Stick!" which is available right here.

The downloadable exercise presented here is my attempt to tonicize and resolve the original line. Probably the easiest and most accessible way to do that, in my estimation, was as.......you guessed it; some sort of ii-V7-I resolution.

The Breakdown:

Line #1, Measure #1; is constructed in two parts. The first beat (four 16th notes) consists of 2 ascending half steps and a descending whole step: = H(up) - H (up) - W (down)

The four 16th note cell, which makes up beat 2, is the exact inversion of beat one, namely;
2 decending half steps and an ascending whole step. = H(down) - H (down) - W (up). It starts a half step up from the final 16th note of beat one.

Beat 3, which begins a half step below the last 16th note of beat 2, consists of two groups of descending whole steps, spaced a descending half step apart: = W (down) - H (up) - W (down)

Beat 4 of measure #1, starting a whole tone up from the last 16th of beat 3, goes W (down) - H (up) - H (down).

Hey Gillespie! You look Dizzy. 
We're not even out of the first measure yet!

The good news is that measure #2 is exactly the same as bar #1 transposed down a perfect 4th, with the lone exception being the very last interval, which is a whole step instead of a half.

That, my friends, was from the original exercise.

I wanted to see where it could go and how it could resolve. I thought it needed a change of direction from a basically descending line in the first 2 bars to something moving back
the other way towards resolution.

The ascent begins in measure #3
, with a combination of half and whole steps. The last 5 notes of the measure belong to an F-Ab-B-D half tone / whole tone diminished scale, which take us to the top of the hill before skipping back down with a basket full of daisies in measure #4, via a contrasting arpeggiated figure, spanning an octave and a half

There are many ways to harmonize this line. The basic harmonies and root movement suggested here work well and sound good. The final 7#9 chord is a tonic
dominant, as in a blues, with both Maj. & min 3rd implications.

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Treble Clef              Bass Clef
<![CDATA[Coltrane's "Satellite" - The First Eight]]>Sat, 21 Feb 2015 12:32:48 GMThttp://bobbysternjazz.com/1/post/2015/02/coltranes-satellite-the-first-eight.htmlColonel Bleeped!
Coltrane's "Satellite" - The First Eight

PictureCol. Bleepdat knows "Satellite".
This post presents an exercise over the chord changes to the first eight bars of John Coltrane's "(Giant) Step-ed Up" up treatment of the popular standard, "How High the Moon", (Charlie Parker's "Ornithology" is based on the straight changes of the tune).

I posted a full transcription of Coltrane's solo, on "Satellite", as well as information about the solo and the recording itself, so I won't repeat that here.

"Satellite" is but one of several 'Trane originals, based on standards, over which he superimposed his version of the "Cycle of Descending Major Thirds", which has become known to the world as "Coltrane Changes" or "Giant Steps Changes".

Actually, this exercise covers the first four bars of "Satellite", since the second four are a repetition of the first, down a whole step (as is the original "How High the Moon").

G Maj7 / G Maj7 /  G-7  / C7        

F Maj7 / F Maj7 /  F-7  / Bb7           the first 8 of "How High the Moon" becomes

G  Bb7/ Eb  F#7 / B  D7 / G-7  C7   
F  Ab7 / Db  E7 / A  C7 / F-7  Bb7    Coltrane's first 8 of "Satellite".

The "cycle of descending maj. 3rds", where each successive Maj. triad is preceded by it's dominant, is in effect for the first 3 measures before cycling back to the original root (in this case "G"), which is now the root of G-7, the ii part of the traditional ii - V7 (G-7 C7), leading to the key of "F", a whole step lower.

The melodic content, in each of the first two measures is made up of basic 1-3-5 ascending Major triads and 9-b7-5-3 dominant 7th descending arpeggios.

In bar #3, the triad takes on an optional "ghost" note and the dom. 7th chord is expressed through a b7-8-9-3 digital scale pattern.

The ii-V7 in bar #4 is expressed through digital pattern 1-2-3-4 on the ii chord and a 6-5-3-1 descending arpeggio on the V7.

Once again, the melodic content of each 4 bars of this exercise is identical, transposed in each case down a whole step and connected by the preceding ii-V7 in the final measure of each segment.

Since the lines move in descending whole steps, there are 2 groups of six keys, and one can start anywhere within those 6 keys, before cycling back to the beginning.

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Treble Clef                Bass Clef
B. Stern
<![CDATA[Be-Boppin' the Harmonic Major Scale]]>Thu, 05 Feb 2015 21:56:58 GMThttp://bobbysternjazz.com/1/post/2015/02/be-boppin-the-harmonic-major-scale.htmlBe-Boppin' the Harmonic Major PictureProf. Diz - Dissecting the equations to some Universal Truths
As I've been recently treating the Harmonic Major scale like a new found toy, I've discovered, for myself at least, some of the unique and interesting qualities of this "hidden in plain sight" seven note harmonic system.

The practice of adding a non-diatonic passing tone to the Major, as well as the Melodic & Harmonic Minor Scales and their modes began as the "eighth note" became the basic rhythmic pulse unit of the music called "BeBop", and became known at some point as the "BeBop Scale"

I think it
was David Baker who first "bopularized" the term.

In order to create an even 8 count of eighth notes trom the original 7 note scale and allow a melodic line to flow and resolve evenly through measures of 4/4, a passing tone was strategically added, the location depending on the mode used, allowing the chord tones to fall on downbeats (and vice versa), for the most part.

So, with that in mind, I was curious to see how one might "Bebop-a-size" the modes of Harmonic Major.

Right off the bat, I hit a slight snag.

Because the "backbone" of Harmonic Major, like its Minor cousin, is essentially a diminished 7th chord (4 of its 7 scale tones; in C = D-F-Ab-B. built on scale steps 2-4-b6-7), the scale has an inherently dominant feel and resolution possibilities. The other 3 scale tones form its tonic C Maj triad (C-E-G), which, of course, also happens to be one of those resolution possibilities.

So what does all this mean as far as "BeBoppin'" this scale is concerned.

First of all, the unofficial "rules" of BeBop Scale creation state that a passing tone be placed between scale steps 5 & 6 for a Maj scale type. In this case, that would mean add an Ab between G & A. But...

In C Harmonic Major. an Ab is already sitting there laughing at you. So, anything between scale steps 5 & 6 is out of the question. In checking the interval scheme of Harmonic Major, we find that the make-uo is:

C - D - E - F  G - Ab - B - C

     W      W     H    W    H      1 1/2     H

This is the first mode, the tonic mode of C Harmonic Major, known as C Ionian b6. It's diatonic 7th chord, built in thirds is C - E - G - B
, which your garden variety C Maj 7, and which is what we'll try to express here with our "BeBopitated" scale creation.

This gives us really only three places to insert a chromatic passing tone: between scale steps 1 & 2
(C & D), 2 & 3 (D & E), and 4 & 5 (F & G ). We'll look at the augmented 2nd between b6 & 7 (Ab & B) in a bit.

Adding a passing tone between 1 & 2 (C & D) gives us:
C - C# - D - E  F - G - Ab - B / C
It sounds pretty good, right? It gets us to where we want to go, which is the octve C on the first downbeat of the next measure. Cool! The only thing is: the chord tones, aside from the root C, are all not on downbeats (bold). The chord tones (C-D-F-Ab) tell us that it would be expressing a D-7b5 more so than a C Maj7.

While it may not be in the official "BeBop Scale Rule Book", it's still a totally usable scale. Put it in your pocket.

Likewise with our next choice, a passing tone between scale steps 2 & 3 (D & E):
C - D - D# - E  F - G - Ab - B / C
Sounds real nice, with a blues scale element. But seems like it wants to say  F-7 (C-D#-F-Ab). Great! Never met one I didn't like. Put that one in your other pocket! C Maj7 please!

Our third and final attempt, a passing tone between scale steps 4 & 5 (F & G), is my choice; but not without a few compromises.
C - D` - E - F  F# - G - Ab - B / C
The chord tones don't all fall on downbeats (C-E-F#-G#), but the root and 3rd do, so the Major quality is at least accented. This example differs from the others, in that the passing tone, F#, actually falls on a downbeat
. The F# isn't even diatonic to the scale!

I can only justify that by saying, that from a theoretical standpoint, the F# could function as a #11, which is usually a pretty good note choice on a Maj7 chord. The Ab is the b6 (or b13) which happens to be the note that has been altered from Major in the first place, and which is the note element that gives Harmonic Major it's distinctive flavor.

You'll notice on the accompanying PDF file, however, that I only use the F# passing tone ascending the scale. The descending version uses the Db passing tone, from choice #1.

Why? 'Cause I like it!

So on those grounds, I think I deserve a stay of execution from the "BeBop Scale Rules Committee". don't you?

Plus, the overriding Law of the Musical Universe, originally brought down from the mountain and first uttered to the masses by Duke himself (Edward Kennedy Ellington, that is), who said,

"If it sounds good and it feels good, then it is good!"

Amen to that, your Dukeshipness!

The other 6 modes of the scale follow the same basic plan. Mode ii (Dorian b5) is the only other mode that uses a different passing tone in each direction.

Getting back to the augmented 2nd between scale steps b6 & 7 (Ab & B), I find it hard to justify a "passing tone" here (either A or Bb) because it wouldn't even function as a passing tone at all. Adding an "A" would just make it a regular C Maj BeBop Scale, with the "A" becoming the scale tone and the "Ab" the passing tone.

Adding a "Bb" would make the scale more of a C Mixolydian b6
(5th Mode of F Melodic Minor), which would in effect turn the "B "into the passing tone and the "Bb" the scale tone. So, I don't know if I'd buy that one.

Anyway, these are only my suggestions. They sound and feel good to me. Besides, I really haven't seen or heard a wealth of information on the subject.

May it sound & feel good to you,too. Go thee forth and "Bopulate".

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Treble Clef        Bass Clef
B. Stern
<![CDATA[Harmonic Major - Cinderella Scale Story?]]>Thu, 22 Jan 2015 14:45:03 GMThttp://bobbysternjazz.com/1/post/2015/01/harmonic-major-cinderella-scale-story.htmlHarmonic Major - Cinderella Scale Story?
This post focuses on a scale system which has been given some lip service, but has been less well represented in either recorded or written examples; namely Harmonic Major

Personally, I haven't paid much attention to this scale and its modes up to this point; the reason being, I guess, is that many of its diatonic chord types
are embedded within some the more commonly used scale systems: Major. minor (melodic & harmonic), diminished and augmented.

However, I've come to discover that the Harmonic Major scale system is a unique and beautiful thing (or should I say thang?)!

Although a hybrid, of sorts
, it contains a number of strangely beautiful and exotic sounding (to western ears) modes and melodic possibilities.

So what, then, is this thing called Harmonic Major, and how did it get here?

First of all, you don't need a pair of magic slippers to manifest this baby! All you need to do is to take your everyday Major Scale........and flat it's 6th degree.

In terms of C Maj, that would mean "A" becomes "Ab".

Harmonic Major can also be seen as a Maj tetrachord (C-D-E-F) coupled with a harmonic minor tetrachord (G-Ab-B-C) a whole tone apart.

An interesting observation here is one which parallels the formation of a Melodic Minor scale by flatting the 3rd degree of Major.

What I mean to say, for example, is that if we take an F Lydian mode (4th mode of C Major) and flat it's 3rd degree, (again "A" to "Ab") we create an aptly named Lydian b3 (F-G-Ab-B  C-D-E-F

As we know, the "Jewel in the Lotus" of Melodic Minor harmony
is it's 7th mode, commonly referred to as the Altered Scale.

If we parallel that by viewing the 3rd mode of C Harmonic Major (E Phrygian b4 = E-F-G-Ab
) as the "quasi 7th mode" of
F Lydian b3, we can view it as a dominant scale which contains a difference of a single note (B rather than Bb) to the E7 altered scale.

E7 altered     =      E-F-G-Ab Bb-C-D-E (7th mode of Melodic Minor)
E Phrygian b4   =  E-F-G-Ab   B-C-D-E (3rd mode of Harmonic Major)

Even though the altered tone (b5) Bb becomes a natural 5 in the Harmonic Major mode, the Phrygian b4 still supplies us with 3 of the 4 possible dominant altered tones - F (b9) G (#9) & C (b13) for E7alt.

The E half /whole diminished scale
also has 3 altered tones (F, G & Bb). The A Harmonic Minor scale has only 2: F & C (b13).

This means that the 3rd mode of the Harmonic Minor scale is more than a worthy alternative to the altered, diminished and harmonic minor scales in representing E7alt, most likely resolving to an "A" something. However, as a result of flatting the A, we now have 2 sets of tritones and a diminished 7th chord (Ab-B-D-F), which means that besides E7, we could use this scale to express G7, Db7 & Bb7 as well.

Speaking of G7, the dominant V7 chord diatonic to C Harmonic Major, the below downloadable PDF contains several examples of diatonic "in house" ii-V7-Is, made up exclusively of tonal material from C Harmonic Major.

Many things one might play in Major could be presented in Harmonic Major with a fresh perspective. The b6 sounds good against a straight C Maj7, giving the line a type of "delayed resolution".

It has also come to my attention that Harmonic Major has some interesting pentatonics and triad pairs. A few standouts are:

  • Pentatonic b3 - F-G-Ab-C-D (omit scale steps 3 & 7) also found in Dorian & Melodic Minor
  • Pentatonic b6 - C-D-E-G-Ab (omit scale steps 4 & 7), also found in Melodic Minor.
  • Pentatonic b2 - G-Ab-B-D-E (omit scale steps 1 & 4), also found in the diminished scale.
  • Pentatonic #2, b6 - E-G-Ab-B-C (omit scale steps 2 & 4), from scale degree 3. One note short (D#) of the 6 note Augmented Scale, and shares its quality.

  • The triad pair of G Maj & F min is a strong, dominant sounding combination. Also native to Harmonic Minor.
  • G Maj & Ab+ expresses a more tonic C Maj7#5 sound.
  • E min & F min combines qualities of both of the above pairs.

As an added thought, three of the modes of Harmonic Major have equivalents among the 72 Carnatic Melakartas.

More material and details on all this stuff will be the subject of future posts, so stay tuned.

Thanks for hanging whilst I attempted to rediscover the wheel!

Ooops! It's one minute before midnight. Gotta go!

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Treble Clef             Bass Clef
B. Stern
<![CDATA[Signs of Augmentia - Augmented Scale Major / Minor Triad Pairs]]>Thu, 08 Jan 2015 18:16:11 GMThttp://bobbysternjazz.com/1/post/2015/01/signs-of-augmentia-augmented-scale-major-minor-triad-pairs.htmlSigns of Augmentia - Augmented Scale 
Major / Minor Triad Pairs PictureSigns of Augmentia++++
While we're on the subject of symmetrical scales (at least we were the last time I posted something), let's check into some of the possibilities which another, albeit lesser discussed, symmetrical configuration, commonly known as the "Augmented Scale", has to offer.

The Augmented Scale is a 6 note (hexatonic) scale made up of three minor 2nds, spaced a Major third apart:

C-Db, E-F, G#-A

Or, the same exact scale can be viewed
as consisting of three minor 3rds (or augmented 2nds), spaced a Major third apart:

Db-E, F-G#, A-C

Same exact scale and notes, starting on either the half step or minor 3rd side of the scale.

Another common way of viewing the Augmented Scale is to see it as 2 Augmented Triads; again either a minor 2nd or minor 3rd, apart:

C-E-G#, Db-F-A
E-G#-C (inversion)

The Augmented Scale also sports 3 Major triads:

(F-A-C, A-C#-E, C#-F-G#, spelled enharmonically);

as well as 3 minor triads:

(F-Ab-C, A-C-E, C#-E-G#, again making use of enharmonic spellings)

Regardless of which triad quality is considered, the Augmented Scale divides the octave into 3 equal parts. Since there are 12 tones in the Western Chromatic Universe, this means that there are 4 distinct, different Augmented Scales (12 divide by 3 = 4; trust me!).

It's the Major / minor aspect of the Augmented Scale that gets our attention for this particular exercise; namely a Major triad and the minor triad a Maj. 3rd below it (eg. C Maj & Ab min.

If we flip the script, we can see it alternately as a minor triad paired with the Major triad a Maj. 3rd above it (Ab min & C Maj), but for now we'll focus on the former triad pair order of things.

A triad pair, by definition, is any two triads which contain no common tones between them. Therefore, a triad pair which contains all 6 notes of an Augmented Scale, can be created with the above mentioned Maj / min triad scheme.

This line is based on a descending pattern utilizing a different triadic inversion for each measure, with an ascending/ descending shape.

For example, in 

Line one, 
measure #1: 

D Maj (2nd inversion / 5th - root - 3rd) = A (up) - D (down)F# 
Bb min (2nd inversion / 5th - root - 3rd) = F (up) - Bb (down) - Db

measure #2

D Maj (1st inversion / 3rd - 5th - root) = F# (up) - A (down) - D 
Bb min (1st inversion / 3rd - 
5th - root) = Db (up) - F (down) - Bb

measure #3

D Maj (root position / root - 3rd - 5th ) = D (up) - F# (down) - A 
Bb min 
(root position / root - 3rd - 5th ) = Bb (up) - Db (down) - F

measure #4

is the same as measure #1, down an octave.

The second, third and fourth lines are transpositions of the first, each time down a Maj. 3rd, with the appropriate Maj. / min triad pairs in effect. Again, each measure is a different way to express a complete augmented scale.

BTW, this scheme can actually be modified for use with triads (or trichords) in any scale
of any type.

Does the term "Cycle of Descending Maj. 3rds" ring a bell? 

It was made famous in 1959 by one John William Coltrane.

"Giant Steps"! Oh yeah! "'Trane Changes"!

As there are 4 different Augmented Scales, there are 4 versions of the above described patterns.

BTW, the above scalar pattern can be modified for use with triads (or trichords) in any scale of any type.

Get it in your fingers. 'Git it in your soul!"

More on it's uses and applications in a future post. In the meantime check "Categories" for previous posts found on this website, on the subject of the Augmented Scale.

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Treble Clef          Bass Clef
B. Stern
<![CDATA[Funkman's Delight #2 - Children of the Damned (Diminished Scale)!]]>Thu, 18 Dec 2014 18:56:29 GMThttp://bobbysternjazz.com/1/post/2014/12/funkmans-delight-2-children-of-the-damned-diminished-scale.htmlFunkman's Delight #2 - Children of the
Damned (Diminished Scale)!

PictureStarring Cy O'Nara
The essential, most compelling element of the 8 note, symmetrical "Diminished Scale" is.........
it's symmetry!

Regardless of whether it starts with a whole or a half step, the beauty of this scale lies in its ability to be broken down into smaller pieces of three, four, five (pentatonic) or six note (hexatonic) cells, whereby these groupings can be combined and spaced at intervals, usually minor thirds or tritones, to create some very hip longer lines.

The potential downside to this method is that
the results of pure symmetry could end up sounding somewhat mechanical or mathematical. but for the sake of exploration and experimentation, that may not necessarily be a bad thing; at least as a starting point.

Besides, a lot usually depends as much on "how" you play something, as it does "what" you play; doesn't it?

But that's something for another post
. In the meantime.......

The line presented here is based on two inherent elements of the diminished scale: a minor triad and a Major triad. These two triads are spaced a tritone apart, which leaves them with no common tones. The resulting triad pair, in turn, forms a hexatonic scale.

Thus, this 6 note configuration is just two notes short of its 8 note parent diminished scale, but it gives us a leaner, meaner set of melodic material to work with.

The line in this exercise is 4 bars long and is meant to work over a static harmony, as in a "funk groove" type situation
, among others.

Checking out Line #i, which consists of the triads B min. (B-D-F#) and F Major (F-A-C), and which in turn forms the hexatonic scale: B-C-D-F-Gb-A. The two missing notes from the parent
diminished scale, in this case, are Eb and Ab (a perfect 4th).

Hearing this scale with "B" as the root of a B7 chord, each of the scale tones would then relate as follows:

B = root; C = b9; D = #9; F = #11; F# = 5; A = b7

Call it anything, but call it B7 b9 #9 #11.

Now check  out the same Line #1, this time over D as the root, naming the same notes as part
of a D7 chord.

Do the same for
F and Ab roots.

If you hadn't noticed, B, D, F & Ab are ascending minor 3rds and spell a diminished 7th chord, whose roots are interchangeable and which divide the octave into 4 equal parts.

We'll be investigating more of the diminished scale and her many "offspring" in future posts. For now, have fun playing in the sandbox
with this one.

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Treble Clef    Bass Clef

B. Stern
<![CDATA[Granted! - A Joe Henderson Solo Transcription]]>Tue, 02 Dec 2014 18:48:23 GMThttp://bobbysternjazz.com/1/post/2014/12/granted-a-joe-henderson-solo-transcription.htmlGranted! - A Joe Henderson Solo Transcription
It's Joe Henderson time again, ladies and gents!
Picture"Happiness is Just a Thing Called (hearing a guy named) Joe"
Joe, as you should know, was one of the music's more stylistically unique and influential tenor saxophonists and improvisers, as well as the composer of a healthy number of classic originals.

His influence and legacy live on in his many recordings, made both as leader and sideman, during a career which spanned nearly four decades.

Henderson's tenor saxophone solo on one of those original compositions, an uptempo C Minor Blues entitled "Granted" (dedicated to the renowned NYC Jazz Radio personality and promoter, Alan Grant, who recently passed away at 93), is the subject of this post and downloadable transcription.

"Granted" was recorded by Rudy Van Gelder on January 27th, 1966 (which happened to be the 25th birthday of the session's vibraphonist, Bobby Hutcherson) and was part of the session that produced Henderson's fifth and last studio album as a leader for the Blue Note label, "Mode for Joe".

At the time of the recording, Joe Henderson was a member of pianist Horace Silver's quintet, which also included a young Woody Shaw on trumpet. Henderson had joined Silver's group in June, 1964 and would remain with the pianist for just another two-plus months.

The fact that he was performing and recording constantly during this stretch, finds Joe in great shape. This period, from when he hit the ground running upon arriving in New York in 1962 (making his recording debut on Kenny Dorham's "Una Mas" album not long thereafter); until leaving Silver's band in April 1966, might be considered Joe Henderson's freshest and most fertile, if not his most prolifically recorded musical period.

It was an incredibly fertile period for the music in general, in any case. It was the 1960's, and times, "they were a-changin'." New York City was populated by a legendary crop of young, black musical innovators, of which the lineup on "Mode for Joe" is but one example. Everybody on the date, with the exception of trombonist Curtis Fuller and pianist Cedar Walton, was still in their twenties at the time of the recording; with Fuller being the "old man" at thirty-one.

The vibe of this whole album, including the writing, is representative of the period; which could be described as a passionate, yet controlled and focused aggression. Each of the soloist
s shares the same "blues sensibility" and rhythmic sensitivity of that generation's great players.

"Granted", a Henderson original, is an uptempo C minor blues
; its solo changes being identical to John Coltrane's "Mr. PC". It is "straight ahead" harmonically, as well as rhythmically, and the solos are all very much "inside" the changes.

The "head" of "Granted", however, has some added dominant harmonic movement and the line itself might be somewhat challenging at first, mainly due to the tempo (ca. 270 bpm).

After brief, but commanding solos by the great Lee Morgan and trombonist Curtis Fuller, Joe busts center stage and into the spotlight.....doin' the.......Macarena?!!

Thirty years before the rest of us heard it (You're scaring me, Joseph!).

Joe must have been using some of that liquid stuff; you know; pour it in your ear and you can hear the music before it comes!!

Each of Henderson's
13 twelve bar choruses is like its own self contained short story, full of "Joe-isms"; i.e. sequences; repetitive rhythmic phrases; locked in with, or floating over or against the time. In fact, what makes this solo so appealing is Joe's whole rhythmic approach; his awesome sense of time and creative control of it.

I think they call that swing, don't they?

Then, of course, there's Joe's unmistakable and inimitable

Killing, is the arpeggiated
sequence in chorus #8, from measures 208 - 215 (ca. 3:17). Joe keeps the four-note arpeggated ascending shape in tact for eight bars (4 - 11) of the chorus. On the face of it, it may not seem like a big deal; but ascending arpeggios at that tempo, for that duration is not something typically heard from a saxophonist. It's more like something you might hear from a pianist. Note that these are not all straight up 1-3-5-7 arpeggios, either; and check out how he moves the bottom note around, in either whole or half steps.

That's an exercise in and of itself!

If you haven't seen this interview with the late , great Michael Brecker (as well, a Horace Silver alumnus), hear what he has to say briefly (at ca. 2:30) about Joe Henderson's (as well as 'Trane's & Sonny's) influence on him.

For a lot of you tenor players out there who've been trying to sound "just like Brecker, dude!"
: If you wanna "play like Mike", you might also want to get to "know some Joe"!

Most importantly, get to know yourself!
"A genius is the one most like himself!" - Thelonious Sphere Monk

    Download PDF (6 Pages)
      Bb                         Concert
Bass Clef
For this transcription, I used Transcribe! transcription software. Transcribe! is an incredibly useful musical tool that does a lot more than just "slow down" a given audio file.
If Transcribe! isn't already a well favored part of your "tool box", it most def should be.
Check out this earlier review post on the subject of Transcribe!

B. Stern
<![CDATA[More Blues Minor - The Coal, Hard Sax!]]>Tue, 18 Nov 2014 17:27:14 GMThttp://bobbysternjazz.com/1/post/2014/11/more-blues-minor-the-coal-hard-sax.htmlMore Blues Minor - The Coal, Hard Sax!
Picture Miner Blues - The Coal Hard Sax
This post could be considered as an addendum to "C Minor Blues - The Last Four" from a few weeks ago.

This 4 bar mini-etude didn't make the cut, only because it was conceived at a much slower tempo (ca. quarter note = 120) as in, for example, Joe Henderson's "Out of The Night" or  "Bags & 'Trane", than the dozen or so in that post.

It does, however contain the same premise; being based on bars 9, 10, 11 and 12 (bVI7-V7-i-i) of the type of medium tempo Minor Blues as those tunes named above.

This one contains a single, four bar phrase, presented in 12 keys, with a 16th note feel.

It works really well as a warmup type exercise.

The breakdown is simple.

Line #1, Measure #1 - Starting on the b7 of Bb7 (bVI7), 4 groups of 16th notes alternating direction (ascending - descending). The second grouping contains a passing tone (A), which is consistent with what is known as the Bb Bebop Dominant scale, a descending Mixolydian mode with a non-diatonic passing tone between scale steps 8 & 7.

Line #1, Measure #2 - As the final note of measure #1 is D, starting the A7alt chord / scale (V7) in bar #2 on a Db (C#), Major 3rd is a smooth choice, with the same asc.-desc. pattern of 16th note groupings, as well as a passing tone (D) in the second grouping again. This scale is Bb Melodic Minor. Depending on the starting note, Melodic Minor can accommodate "BeBop" passing tones between scale steps 3 & 4, 4 & 5, 5 & 6  and 1 & 2.

Line #1, Measure #3 & 4 - The tonic (i) D minor chord starts on its 3rd and the scale choice here is, you guessed it; D Melodic Minor. The pattern employed here is an "altered" take off on the common Major scale 1-2-3-5  4-5-6-8 "digital" pattern.

As the Melodic Minor scale is, in reality, an "altered" Major scale (with a flatted 3rd), it's patterns will "alter" accordingly.

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<![CDATA[Got the Digits? - Melodic Minor i-V7 Digital Patterns]]>Tue, 04 Nov 2014 11:50:23 GMThttp://bobbysternjazz.com/1/post/2014/11/got-the-digits-melodic-minor-i-v7-digital-patterns.htmlGot the Digits?
Melodic Minor Tonic to Dominant (i-V7alt) Digital Patterns

Picture"Dig It All! Re: Doo-Doo" painting by Fo-Toh Zjiap
The Melodic Minor scale, being in reality, an "altered" Major scale (with a flatted 3rd), translates those alterations from Major to it's phrases and melodic patterns as well.

This exercise is a technical study in the use of inherent Melodic Minor "1235 type" "digital patterns" over a common Tonic to Dominant (i - V7alt) harmonic movement, aka the "A" sections of "Softly as in a Morning Sunrise", or "A Night in Tunisia" (which has a bII7 sub for its V7).

By "digital patterns", I don't mean "ones and zeros" or Boolean Algebra; just good ol' analog left and right hand "digits", more commonly known as fingers.

While one might be familiar with the common Major Scale "digits" (ie, 1235 4568, 2346 5679 and so forth), the altered Melodic Minor versions of these same patterns might be less familiar, both in feel as well as sound.

The downloadable exercise is designed to familiarize oneself with these Melodic Minor "altered" digital patterns.

Each measure of this exercise contains, as in Line #1, Measure #1, 2 ascending groups of 4 eighth notes per measure. Each subsequent measure begins with the next available diatonic scale tone, between the two scales. This sets up and follows the basic shape and contour of the exercise, which is 8 bars per key.

The basic scheme, with exceptions, is step up - step up -
skip up / step down - step up - step up -skip up.

Line #1, Measure #1 - (D min) D-E-F-A / G-A-B-D  = scale steps 1-2-b3-5 / 4-5-6-8  of D Melodic Minor, right? Solid!

Line #1, Measure #2 - (A7alt) Db-Eb-F-A / G-A-Bb-Db  = scale steps b3-4-5-7 / 6-7-8-b3  of Bb Melodic Minor, which is the parent scale from which the "A altered" scale is begat, being born on its 7th degree ("....it's the one, it's the one; the one they call the Seventh Son").

Maybe they should call this the "Hoochie Coochie" scale!

But seriously, folks........

By beginning the second measure pattern on a Db (C#), we're employing the next closest descending scale tone to the first note of measure #1, which was D. The Db (C#) is the Maj 3rd of A7alt chord, as well as the b3 of Bb Melodic Minor.

Well, you ask, shouldn't you be thinking Db (or
C#) Lydian Augmented (the mode built off the 3rd scale degree of Bb Melodic Minor)?

No, not really.

The fact
that Melodic Minor contains no "avoid notes", means that you can start the scale on any of its notes. It doesn't matter what you call it, because in this case, you're expressing Bb Melodic Minor over A. Why tax your brain with a bunch of names.

The modes of Melodic Minor are useful to know and understand if you are using them "modally".

That is, when improvising over a static harmonic situation lasting several measures or more. In that case, if you're vamping over a Db for say, 8 or 16 bars, you might think, "Hey, Db Lydian Augmented!".

I still think it's much simpler, even then, to think in terms of the Melodic Minor parent scale or "key
"; Bb Melodic Minor over Db, in this case

The remainder of the exercise follows along the same basic scheme; although not all 4 note groupings are symmetrical
, as well as several note combinations have been left out.

For example, both Line #1, Measure #3 and Line #2, Measure #2 employ a basic1-2-3-6 / 5-6-7-8 (counting the first note of that measure as "1"), which translate to

step up - step up - skip 2 steps up / step down - step up - step up -step up
= B-C#-D-G / F-G-A-B and G-A-Bb-Eb / Db-Eb-F-G, respectively.

Each measure ends a perfect octave higher than the note from which it started.

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<![CDATA[B. There! - "Invitation" - The Last Eight]]>Wed, 29 Oct 2014 15:31:44 GMThttp://bobbysternjazz.com/1/post/2014/10/b-there-invitation-the-last-eight.htmlB. There! - "Invitation" - The Last Eight
Here's another in a series of "Last Eight" (or "Last Four") groups of etudes; designed to zero in on a certain section of a particular tune, where the chord / scale choices and their connectivity might be somewhat ambiguous, and might in general, might make you say "Huh?!"

This time, we'll take a look at the well known and oft played standard "Invitation", by Bronislau Kaper, the Polish born film composer who also wrote "On Green Dolphin Street'.

At the very end of last year, I posted an etude based on the complete set of changes of "Invitation" (here), for what it's worth.

The last eight measures (and especially the last four) of "Invitation" used to make me scratch my head (I'm sure it wasn't dandruff, or worse), before I knew how to recognize and handle Melodic Minor chord / scale relationships in these situations.

And if you didn't already realize it "Invitation" is a Melodic Minor lover's dream!

So, approaching it from an MM point of view, we can cover the last eight bars of "Invitation" with but four Melodic Minor scales.

Here they are, chord by chord (in concert key):

Eb min
= Eb Melodic Minor (Eb-F-Gb-Ab-Bb-C-D). Eb Dorian (change the D to a Db) is also a choice here.

B7#11 = F# Melodic Minor (F#-G#-A-B-C#-D#-F). The common way of thinking of this scale would be from the root of the chord "B", and you would call it "B Lydian Dominant", the 4th mode of F# Melodic Minor.

However, I find it to be much less confusing to simply think of it in terms of its parent Melodic Minor scale. Since Melodic Minor has no "avoid notes"
, you are free to start the scale anywhere, regardless of its root, and it therefore doesn't necessitate thinking of the names and notes of a million modes. You just be conscious of the Melodic Minor "key" you are in.

F7alt =
F# Melodic Minor (F#-G#-A-B-C#-D#-F). Wow! Speak of the devil! Here's that exact same F# MM scale again. This time, for use over this F7alt. Starting F#MM on F, it's 7th degree, is known as the "F altered scale". But who cares what you call it? You're thinking the key of F# MM over F, right?; functioning as a dominant (V7) chord, looking to resolve somewhere; such as........

Bb7alt = B Melodic Minor (B-C#-D-E-F#-G#-A#). Again a so called "altered scale". Forget about it! Think "B Melodic Minor", which is the Melodic Minor key a Perfect 5tth below the previous measure, and resolves naturally (V7-i) to.....

Eb min = Eb Melodic Minor (Eb-F-Gb-Ab-Bb-C-D), before
moving again, in the next measure, to the MM key a P5th below; namely......

G7alt = Ab Melodic Minor (Ab-Bb-Cb-Db-Eb-F-G), which is the dominant chord (V7alt) that leads back to the C min tonic chord at the top of the tune.

It's interesting to note that the harmonic movement of Perfect Fifths is accomplished here not only with
root movement, but with the Melodic Minor keys as well; as is between the last two measures (Eb MM to Ab MM).

To sum up:

I think it's important, initially, to learn the names of each of the modes and chords (and their symbols) of all the Melodic Minor "key
s". That way you'll recognize and relate them to the parent Melodic Minor scale when you come across them in a playing situation. You won't have to think, "What's G Lydian Augmented", for a G Maj7+5 #11, for example. You'll think "E Melodic Minor". Period. The lack of avoid notes allows you to do that.

It's like learning multiplication tables. You don't
have to think about "What's 5 x 5", do you? I hope not.

You'd automatically know it's 55, right?!.........

Did I getchya?

So once again, to echo the words and sentiments of that great 20th Century American poet, Slim Harpo
, in his epic poem, "Scratch My Back":

                                                                 "I know you kin do it;
                                                                    so baby, git to it!"

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Bb                 Eb
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B. Stern